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Anticorpi per Angiogenesi ReliaTech
Podoplanin, LYVE-1, PROX-1 e CD31, etc...

The circulation system consists of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
The lymphatic system plays important roles in immune function, homeostasis and tumor metastasis. Clinical observations indicate thatwhile sarcomas spread mainly through the blood stream, most carcinomas spread primarily via the lymphatic vessels.

In animal models, overexpression of lymphangiogenic factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D in tumor cells enhances metastatic spread of tumors. In the past, there were no reliable markers to distinguish blood vessel endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells. Only recently several specific lymphatic markers have been discovered and „lymphangiogenesis“ is now emerging as an exciting sector of angiogenesis research, largely due to potential clinical applications.

We support this research with a collection of well-validated antibodies against human and mouse lymphatic markers podoplanin, PROX-1 and LYVE-1.

Podoplanin is a well-recognized lymphatic endothelium marker, which can be used to reliably distinguish lymphatic vessels from blood vessels.
Podoplanin is a Mr 38000 membrane mucoprotein that was originally detected on the surface of rat glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) and was found to be linked to fl attening of foot processes that occur in glomerular diseases. Podoplanin shows features of a membrane mucoprotein with several conserved O-glycosylation sites. Currently, it is of unknown biological function. Because heavily O-glycosylated mucoproteins were identified recently as counterreceptors for selectins that mediate adhesion of infl ammatory cells, it is possible that podoplanin plays a similar role in lymphatic endothelia.



LYVE-1 has been identifi ed as a major receptor for HA (extracellular matrix glycosamino-glycan hyaluronan) on the lymph vessel wall. The deduced
amino acid sequence of LYVE-1 predicts a 322-residue type I integral membrane polypeptide 41% similar to the CD44 HA receptor with a 212-residue extracellular domain containing a single link module, the prototypic HA binding domain of the link protein superfamily. Like CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule binds both soluble and immobilized HA. However, unlike CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule colocalizes with HA on the luminal face of the lymph vessel wall and is absent from blood vessels. Hence, LYVE-1 is the first lymph-specifi c HA receptor to be characterized and is a uniquely powerful marker for lymph vessels themselves. 















Double Immunostaining of human lymphatic endothelial cells using antibodies to
Podoplanin (green) and PROX-1 (red)



Paraffin sections of mouse liver stained with (anti mouse Podoplanin, (first) and anti mouse CD31 (second)




The homeobox gene PROX-1 was originally cloned by homology to the Drosophila melanogaster gene prospero. PROX-1 is expressed in a subpopulation of endothelial cells which by budding and sprouting, give rise to the lymphatic system. PROX-1-defi cient homozygous mice have unaffected vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, but liver and lymphatics do not develop. Human PROX-1 gene has been mapped to chromosome 1q32.2 - q32.3, and its product shows 94% similarity to the chicken protein. The conserved structure and expression pattern of the Prox-1 gene imply that it may play the same roles in humans as in other vertebrates. The human PROX-1 gene is most actively expressed in the developing lens. Our anti-PROX-1 provide a highly specifi c marker of lymphatic endothelial cells.


Antibody tools for studying lymphatic vessels
The combination of anti podoplanin, anti-LYVE-1 and anti-CD31 /PECAM1 antibodies can be used to differentiate clearly between blood vessels,
lymphatic vessels and bile ducts in paraffi n embedded or frozen sections (see schema below). Furthermore they are useful for immunoprecipitation
experiments and western blotting. 


                              Podoplanin       CD31
Lymphatic vessel              +                +
Blood vessel                      –                +
Bile duct                            +                –











Immunostaining of human
mucosa (paraffin sections)
using anti Podoplanin (first)
and anti PROX-1 (second)


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